Most poor people in the world live in rural communities, and they are more likely to be women, children, or members of a minority ethnic group. The research presented in this brief focus on these individuals, the most vulnerable in society. The paper draws substantially from Elin’s Ph.D. dissertation “Essays on Child Education, Child Labor and the Agricultural Economy”. The dissertation consists of four separate papers, with somewhat different focus. The first two papers focus on children and human capital, while the other two focus on the agricultural economy.